MINISTRY OF ECOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT
THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA
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Constitution of the People's Republic of China
(Excerpts of envivonment-related articles)
Article type: Translated 2020-11-12 Font Size:[ S M L ] [Print] [Close]

Constitution of the People's Republic of China

(Adopted at the Fifth Session of the Fifth National People’s Congress and promulgated by the Announcement of the National People’s Congress on December 4, 1982; 

amended in accordance with the Amendment to the Constitution of the People’s Republic of China adopted at the First Session of the Seventh National People’s Congress on April 12, 1988, 

the Amendment to the Constitution of the People’s Republic of China adopted at the First Session of the Eighth National People’s Congress on March 29, 1993, 

the Amendment to the Constitution of the People’s Republic of China adopted at the Second Session of the Ninth National People’s Congress on March 15, 1999, 

the Amendment to the Constitution of the People’s Republic of China adopted at the Second Session of the Tenth National People’s Congress on March 14, 2004, 

and the Amendment to the Constitution of the People’s Republic of China adopted at the First Session of the Thirteenth National People’s Congress on March 11, 2018)

 

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Article 9 All mineral resources, waters, forests, mountains, grasslands, unreclaimed land, mudflats and other natural resources are owned by the state, that is, by the whole people, except for the forests, mountains, grasslands, unreclaimed land and mudflats that are owned by collectives as prescribed by law.

The state shall ensure the rational use of natural resources and protect rare animals and plants. It is prohibited for any organization or individual to seize or damage natural resources by any means.

Article 10 Land in cities is owned by the state.

Land in rural and suburban areas is owned by collectives except for that which belongs to the state as prescribed by law; housing sites and cropland and hillsides allotted for private use are also owned by collectives.

The state may, in order to meet the demands of the public interest and in accordance with the provisions of law, expropriate or requisition land and furnish compensation.

No organization or individual shall unlawfully transfer land through seizure, sale and purchase, or in any other form. Land-use rights may be transferred in accordance with the provisions of law.

All organizations and individuals using land must use it in an appropriate manner.

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Article 22 The state shall develop art and literature, the press, radio and television broadcasting, publishing, libraries, museums and cultural centers, and other cultural undertakings that serve the people and socialism; and shall promote public cultural activities.

The state shall protect places of scenic beauty and historical interest, valuable cultural relics and other forms of important historical and cultural heritage.

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Article 26 The state shall protect and improve living environments and the ecological environment, and prevent and control pollution and other public hazards.

The state shall organize and encourage afforestation and protect forests.