Report On the State of the Environment In China
2 0 0 2


Arable Land / Land Resources


According to the investigation on the change of the land utilization, the total area of lands in the whole country in 2002 was categorized as the following: 125.93 million hectares of arable land, with the per capita arable land of 0.1 hectare, less than one half of the arable land per capita in the world; 10.79 million hectares of gardens; 263.52 million hectares of grassland; 25.65 million hectares of land for other agricultural purposes; 25.10 million hectares of land for the residential areas and independent mines; 2.08 million hectares of land for transportation;3.55 million hectares of land for water conservancy facilities. The rest was the unused land.

In 2002, 196.5 thousand hectares of arable land were occupied for construction purpose nationwide. 56.4 thousand hectares of arable land were destroyed by natural disasters. In this period, 260.8 thousand hectares of land were turned to be arable land through land reclamation and cultivation. The increase offset the loss with 7.9 thousand hectares. In the same period, 1.4255 million hectares of arable land were used for ecological conservation. 349 thousand hectares of arable land were reduced through agricultural structure adjustment. The net reduction of the total area of arable land in the country in 2002 was 1.6862 million hectares compared with that in previous year.

State of Soil Erosion The total area of soil erosion in the nation was 3.56 million square kilometers, accounting for 37.1% of the territory areas. Among that, water erosion area was 1.65 million square kilometers, consisting of 17.2% of the territory areas. The wind erosion area was 1.91 million square kilometers, accounting for 19.9% of the territory areas. Considering intensity of the erosion, the area with slight soil erosion was 1.62 million square kilometers. The area with moderate erosion reached to 0.8 million square kilometers. The area with serious erosion was 0.43 million square kilometers. The area with very serious erosion was 0.33 million square kilometers. The area with severe erosion was 0.38 million square kilometers. 

Measures and Actions

To perfect macro-adjustment and control system for land resources
Various land resources programs approved by State Council were carried out carried out. The planning system for land utilization was established, consisting of overall plan for land utilization, specific plan for land utilization and the detailed plan for land utilization. The overall planning system for land utilization at five levels as state, province, city, county and village (town) was kept improving. “ National Management Plan for Land Cultivation (2001-2010)” was finished compilation at the end of 2002.

To realize the balance between occupation and compensation of arable land nationwide Considering the improvement of guarantee capacity of land resources, especially arable land resources, towards the social economic sustainable development as the basic starting point, the balance between arable land occupation and replenishment was insisted, the amount of arable land was complemented and the quality of arable land was improved. The balance between the arable land occupied for construction and the land replenished was realized in 31 provinces ( regions, cities) in the nation in 2002.

To investigate the land used for cities and development zones High technologies such as remote control were used to replace traditional investigation methods. The land used for construction of cities and development zones were investigated and monitored. The changes of land utilization were grasped timely. These efforts provided scientific basis for the management of land resources. 

To enhance the enforcement of laws on land resources The enforcement of laws on land resources was further strengthened. 112.1 thousand cases of law violation were handled with the area of land captured being 41 million hectares and fines of 936 million RMB.

The progress of the implementation of key projects on water and soil conservation Emphasized treatment of water and soil conservation in the areas with serious soil erosion was further strengthened. The scope of the key prevention and control projects on water and soil conservation in seven river basins in the country was expanded. The key water and soil conservation projects, such as the project on the treatment of sandstorm sources in Beijing and Tianjin area, the second phase World Bank loan project on conservation of water resources in the capital and water and soil conservation in loess plateau, the project on comprehensive treatment in Talimu river basin and Hei river basin and etc., progressed smoothly. The first phase project on construction of water and soil conservation monitoring network and information system and the pilot project on the construction of silt arrester in loess plateau started the implementation. In 2002, more than 700 counties and regions carried out treatment of soil erosion nationwide with the total investment of 5.706 billion RMB. Among the amount, 1.619 billion RMB was invested by central government, and 941 million RMB was invested by local governments. The area finished comprehensive treatment of soil erosion was 55 thousand square kilometers. 

The implementation of Water and Soil Conservation Law In 2002, more than 30 thousand construction projects implemented reporting system for water and soil conservation plans and “ three simutanuousness” system. In the area of 20 thousand square kilometers, 4 billion RMB was invested for water and soil conservation. The water and soil conservation facilities of a batch of key construction projects in Xiaolangdi and Wanjiazhai, were commissioned by the government. 




































Water Environment
Marine Environment
Atmospheric Environment
Acoustic Environment
Solid Wastes
Radiative Environment
Arable Land / Land Resources
Climate and Natural Disasters
Environmental Management