Report On the State of the Environment In China
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Radiative Environment


The Quality of National Radioactive Environment: According to the national radioactive environment monitoring networks, the atmospheric absorption dose rates of γ radiation in Beijing, Shaanxi, Zhejiang, Jiangsu, Fujian, Shanxi, Shandong, and Heilongjiang, etc. ranged from 51.5 nGy/h to 96.7 nGy/h in 2002. The rate in other regions varied in the range of 93.9~107.0nGy/h. After excluding the contribution from cosmic rays, the atmospheric absorption dose of γ radiation in those areas fell in line with values measured in the Survey of Natural Radioactive Levels. The average radioactive levels of total α and β were in line with values measured in previous years. The contents of U, Th, 226Ra, 40K, 90Sr, and 137Cs were in consistence with values measured in the Survey of Natural Radioactive Levels. The atmospheric concentrations of radon ranged between 28.2~66.5Bq/m3 in provinces and municipalities, such as Beijing, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Xinjiang, Baotou, which was in consistence with previous annual monitoring results.

Interim Urban Warehouse for Radioactive Wastes: The atmospheric absorption dose rate of γ radiation in the warehouse areas and surrounding areas, and the concentrations of radioactive nuclide in the air aerosols, water, soil and crops were at the same level compared with those in other environments.

Electromagnetic Radiation Sources: Findings from monitoring selected electromagnetic radiation sources indicated that the indoor electromagnetic radiation levels in environmentally sensitive spots, such as residential and office areas near to mobile base stations, met the national standard, except that the radiation level exceeded the standard in the roofs of some stations. The radiation level in the areas surrounding high-voltage electricity transmission and transformer projects and certain 220kV and 500kV high-voltage electricity transmission lines exceeded the threshold stipulated by the government. The power frequency electric field intensity in some spots and locations overrun the limit nearly by twice. The electromagnetic radiation levels in sensitive spots near the antenna of the broadcast television transmission stations exceeded the stipulated threshold. Although the electromagnetic radiation pollution assumed a trend of rapid rising and the levels in some areas exceeded the standard, the overall environment of electromagnetic radiation is comparatively good.

                                        n Gy/h

Measures and Action

Construction of National Radioactive Environment Monitoring Networks: SEPA held the National Working Conference on Radioactive Environmental Protection. The efforts in radioactive environmental protection in the Tenth Five-Year Plan period was discussed and arranged. The Standard for the Construction of Radioactive Environment Monitoring Stations (Trial) was compiled and issued. The Feasibility Study Report of Construction Projects for National Environmental Monitoring Network (Radioactive Section) was compiled and passed the project review by the State Development and planning Commission. According to the Report, the government will invest over 100 million yuan in improving the construction of the national radioactive environment monitoring networks, centers for radioactive monitor technologies, and technology centers for nuclear and radioactive emergencies. The Demostration Plan for the National Radioactive Environment Monitoring was compiled. The comparison of γ radiation dose measurements by member stations of the national radioactive environment monitoring networks was undertaken.

Automatic Continuous Environmental Radiation Dose Rate Monitoring System: The Continuous Environmental Radiation Dose Rate Monitoring System was established in Qinshan Nuclear Power Station. The System came into operation on December 20, 2002. In addition, another two continuous environmental radiation monitoring spots were set up in Beilong and Yangmeikeng following the commercial operation of Ling’ao Nuclear Power Station.

Water Environment
Marine Environment
Atmospheric Environment
Acoustic Environment
Solid Wastes
Radiative Environment
Arable Land / Land Resources
Climate and Natural Disasters
Environmental Management