The Quality of the National Radioactive Environment: According to the National Radioactive Environmental Monitoring Network, the atmospheric absorption dose rate of γ radiation in Beijing, Tianjin, Chongqing, Jilin, Hebei, Zhejiang, Guizhou, Ningxia, Nanjing, Jinan, Qingdao, Fuzhou, Fuzhou, Nanning, Kunming, Xi’an, Lanzhou, Xining, Urumuqi, Baotou, and Yining was between 37.5 ~ 69.8 nGy/h. The baseline value at the time of the natural radiation survey was between 42.9 ~ 92.6 nGy/h.
In Beijing, Baotou, Shijiazhuang, Nanjing, Changsha, Nanning, Guizhou, and Urumuqi, the radon concentration in the atmosphere was between 6.0 ~ 51.0 Obq/m³, which was generally consistent with the monitoring results of previous years. The indoor radon concentration was lower than the national standards. But the latent energy ratio between Thoron and radon α in Baotou was 0.72, which was 3.6 times the national average. In Shanghai, Tianjin, Shijiazhuang, Qingdao, Hangzhou, and Xi’an, the activity rate of the radiation of the total α and total β of aerosol maintained normal level.
Atmospheric Absorption Dose Rate of γ Radiation in Selected Provinces and
The Radioactive Environment of Pollution Sources: In 2003, Qinshan Nuclear Power Plants of Zhejiang and Dayawan-Ling’ao Nuclear Power Plant of Guangdong operated safely and normally.
The discharge of radioactive substances by the nuclear power plants of the Qinshan Nuclear Base was lower than the national standard. The γ radiation dose rate in the surrounding environment increased slightly. In the main direction where the radioactive air flow of the Qinshan Power Plants was discharged, the concentration of tritium gas was less than 5.2 ~ 386.7 mB1/m3-air.The average value was 128.5±107.8 mB1/m3-air, which was slightly higher than the baseline value. In the other environmental media, the concentrations of radioactive elements discharged by the nuclear power plants were all within the variation range of the baseline values before the nuclear power plants’ operation.
In Dayawan-Ling'ao Nuclear Power Plant of Guangdong, the γ radiation dose rate in the surrounding environment and the concentration of radioactive elements in the atmosphere were consistent with the baseline values before the nuclear station existed. In the neighboring sea areas, except for the concentration of tritium in the sea water which was less than 1.3 ~ 70.7 Bq/L, the concentration of all other artificially made radioactive elements were within the variation range of the baseline values before the nuclear power plant existed. In the oyster samples taken from the sea, 110mAG, a key nuclear element discharged from the nuclear power plant, was detected; its concentration range was between 0.06~ 0.27 Bq/kg for fresh oysters, and the yearly average concentration was 0.14 Bq/kg for fresh oysters. In the other environmental media, the concentrations of radioactive elements discharged by the nuclear power plant were all within the variation range of the baseline value before the nuclear power plant existed.
The Electromagnetic Radiation Sources: The monitoring results show that the electromagnetic radiation in the surrounding buildings and at the environmentally sensitive points near most mobile communications base stations was within the range of the values prescribed by the national Regulations on the Prevention of and Protection from Electromagnetic Radiation (GB8702-88), except that the electromagnetic radiation on the roofs of the antennae of a few mobile communications base stations exceeded national standard. The electromagnetic radiation near some 500 KV high-voltage power transmission lines exceeded national standard. The electromagnetic radiation exceeded national standard on the roofs of some high buildings and sensitive points such as the window areas of residential buildings near the radio and television transmission stations. But the electromagnetic radiation was consistent with national standard at sensitive points that were relatively far from transmission stations, or on the roofs of low buildings, or not facing transmission stations directly.
Countermeasures and Actions:
The Construction of National Environmental Monitoring Network for Radiation: In 2003, Guangdong Environmental Radiation Research and Monitoring Center and Jiangsu Environmental Radiation Monitoring Management Station, both of which were within the National Environmental Monitoring Network for Radiation, passed the second-round examination for national certification. Tianjin Radiation Management Institute and Yunnan Radiation Monitoring Station passed national certification. Sichuan Radiation Management Monitoring Center and Baotou Radiation Management Center passed the second-round examination for provincial certification. Jiangsu Radiation Monitoring Management Station was also certified by national laboratories.
Measurement Trainings and Comparisons: In 2003, training and calibration activities were conducted by the national radioactive environmental monitoring network for the measurement of total α and total β radiations and radio electronic interference. 90 experts in radiation monitoring from 25 provinces participated in these activities.
Emergency Responses to Nuclear & Radiation Accidents and Terrorist Attacks: According to the requirement by SEPA, a number of provinces formulated Emergency Response Plans for Nuclear and Radiation Accidents for their jurisdictions. These provinces included Beijing, Tianjin, Shanxi, Hebei, Henan, Heilongjiang, Hunan, Zhejiang, Guangxi, Jiangsu, Ningxia, Anhui, Guizhou, and Xinjiang. Some provinces had formulated Emergency Response Plans for Terrorist Attacks on Nuclear and Radiation Facilities for their jurisdictions. These provinces included Xinjiang, Heilongjiang, Henan, Zhejiang, Guangxi, Jiangsu, Ningxia, Sichuan, Shanxi, and Shannxi.
The Strengthening of Uniform Supervision and Management on the Security of Radiation Sources: In order to safeguard public security, the Central Government issued official documents to make it clear that environmental departments, which are the competent agency responsible for nuclear safety, are responsible for the uniform supervision and management of the production, import & export, sales, use, transportation, storage, and waste disposal of radiation sources. This has established a unified management system for the security of radiation sources.
Anti-terrorist Manoeuvres: SEPA organized two emergency manoeuvres on 25 February 2003 and 27 September 2003 respectively in response to terrorist attacks on nuclear and radiation facilities. The aim of the manoeuvres was to test the suitability and feasibility of SEPA's Emergency Response Plan for Terrorist Attacks on Nuclear and Radiation Facilities, to test the capacity of the relevant agencies and organizations for immediate response to terrorist attacks, and to test the effectiveness of emergency responses and emergency communications, as well as the capacity for emergency monitoring assessment.