Report On the State of the Environment In China
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Radiation Environment

General Situation

The Quality of National Radioactive Environment    According to the National Radioactive Environmental Monitoring Network in 2004, the atmospheric absorption rate of γ radiation in Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, Chongqing, Jilin, Heilongjiang, Xinjiang, Ningxia, Fujian, Zhejiang, Jiangsu, Guangxi, Kunming, Baotou, Xining and Xi'an was between 38.5 ~ 102.6 nGy/h. The average baseline value of the natural radioactivity was between 50.3 ~ 92.3 nGy/h.

The radon concentration in the atmosphere of such cities as Beijing, Baotou, Shijiazhuang, Nanjing, Fuzhou, Nanning, Harbin and Urumqi was between 2.58 ~ 61.72 Bq/m3, which was generally the same as the monitoring results of the previous years. The indoor radon concentration was lower than the national Standards for the Control of Indoor Radon Concentration. The total α and β radiation of aerosol in Shanghai, Tianjin, Shijiazhuang, Hangzhou, Xi'an and Urumqi maintained at normal level. 

Atmospheric Absorption Dose Rate of γ Radiation in Selected Provinces and Municipalities in 2004

The Radioactive Environment of Pollution Sources    In 2004, the surrounding radiation of the first, second and third phase of Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant of Zhejiang and Dayawan and Ling’ao Nuclear Power Plants of Guangdong Province was maintained at the baseline level before operation. 

The discharge of radioactive substances from each nuclear power generating sets of the Qinshan Nuclear Base was lower than the national standard. The atmospheric γ radiation absorption rate in the surrounding environment averaged 102.3nGy/h, falling into the fluctuations of the baseline value. In the main direction where the radioactive air pollutants of the Qinshan Power Plant was discharged, the concentration of tritium gas was between 16.3 ~ 1,034.5 mBq/m3-air with the average of 270.3 mBq/m3-air. The concentration of rain tritium was less than 1.2 ~ 28.5Bq/L with the average of 5.1Bq/L. Both of the averages were higher than the level before operation. Monitoring results at Xiajiawan and Yangliu County around Qinshan Nuclear Base revealed that since 2002, the concentration of tritium in rain and air showed a rising trend year on year, but still meeting national standards. In other environmental media, all the concentration of radioactive elements discharged by the nuclear power plants fell into the range of natural fluctuations.

In 2004 the atmospheric absorption dose of γ radiation and the concentration of air radioactive elements in the surrounding environment of Dayawan and Ling'ao Nuclear Power Plants of Guangdong Province remained at the baseline values before the nuclear station was established. In the sea areas of west Dayawan, except for the concentration of tritium in the sea water which was less than 1.3 ~ 11.0 Bq/L, the concentration of all other artificial radioactive elements fell into the natural fluctuations. In the oyster samples, 110mAg, a key nuclear element discharged from the nuclear power plants, was detected with the concentration between 0.30 ± 0.05 Bq/kg for fresh oysters. In other environmental media, the concentrations of radioactive elements discharged by the nuclear power plants were all within the natural fluctuation range before the nuclear power plant was established.

The Electromagnetic Radiation Sources    The monitoring results showed that the electromagnetic radiation level of the surrounding buildings and at the environmentally sensitive points near most mobile communications base stations met national Regulations on the Prevention of and Protection from Electromagnetic Radiation (GB8702-88), except those building roofs where the antennae of a number of mobile communications base stations were set up. The electromagnetic radiation near some 500 KV high-voltage power transmission lines exceeded national standard. In addition, the electromagnetic radiation at such sensitive points as around radio and television broadcasting stations, a number of high-rise building roofs and windows in vicinity of antennas failed to meet the above national standard. Whereas the electromagnetic radiation of other areas that were relatively far from radio and TV transmission stations, low buildings, or the floors of high buildings not facing those stations met relevant national standard.

Countermeasures and Actions

【Investigation and Management of Radioactive Sources】 As agreed by the State Council, a special campaign of "check and clear radioactive sources and ensure safety of the people" was launched nationwide led by State Environmental Protection Administration (SEPA) in cooperation with the Ministry of Public Security and Ministry of Health. A dynamic archive was established on the management of radioactive sources, realizing effective management on the information of radioactive sources in China. As a result, over 140,000 radioactive sources were identified. The administration of radioactive sources was smoothly transferred from the Ministry of Health to SEPA, straightening out the safety management mechanism for radiation sources. In addition, targeting the problems discovered in this campaign, SEPA issued a series of policies and measures on further strengthen the unified supervision and management over the production, import and export, sales, use, transport, storage and disposal of radioactive sources. 

【Laws and Regulations on Nuclear Safety and Management】 With the implementation of The Law of People's Republic of China on Administrative Licensing, National Nuclear Safety Administration (NNSA) has streamlined existing laws, rules and regulations and guidelines on nuclear safety. 

【Emergency Response to Nuclear and Radiation Accidents and Terrorist Attacks】 Zhejiang Nuclear Emergency Commission carried out a maneuver on nuclear accident around Qinshan Nuclear Power Station in December 2004. Related departments such as provincial environmental protection bureau, public security bureau, transportation, health, civil affairs, provincial military command and relevant divisions of Haiyan County Government took part this activity. And the maneuver ended with great success. 

Fresh Water Environment

Marine Environment

Atmospheric Environment


Solid Wastes


Arable Land / Land Resources




Climate and Natural Disasters

Environmental Management